Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease among Libyan Children: A Single Centre Study

Main Article Content

Rugea Mahmmed
Moftah Alhagamhmad
Naema Goobae
Abdelhamid Shaki
Mohamed Masood

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the pattern of Congenital heart disease (CHD) in Al-Mugref Teaching Hospital in the North Eastern part of Libya.

Patients and Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study involved pediatric patients aged from day 1 until age of 15 years who were referred to the Cardiology department at Almugref Teaching Hospital for suspected CHD. Data were collected over a period of one year and all the recruited patients were subjected to a full cardiovascular system (CVS) examination and 2D Echocardiography (ECHO).

Results and Conclusions: Out of the 719 total referred cases, 332 (46.1%) were confirmed having underlying CHD with predominant a cyanotic type 307 (92.5%). In terms of gender predominance, male to female ratio was 1.1: 1(176 vs. 156). Frequency of CHD in order frequency was as follow: Atrial septal defect (ASD) 134; 40.4%, Ventricular septal defect ( VSD) 102; 30.8%, Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) 31; 9.3%, Pulmonary stenosis (PS)15; 4.5%, Atrioventricular (AV) canal defects 12; 3.6%, Aortic stenosis (AS)11; 3.3%, Tetraology of fallot (TOF) 9; 2.7%, Transposition of great arteries (TGA) 4; 1.2%, complex CHD (4; 1.2%), Rhabdomyoma (3;0.9%),  total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage ( 3; 0.9%), Truncus arteriosus (TA) 2; 0.6%, Pulmonary atresia (PA)1; 0.3%, Co-arctation of aorta (COA) 1; 0.3%. In terms of the outcome, majority of the patients in a cyanotic group were advised for scheduled follow-ups (240; 78.18%), and almost a quarter had their heart defects being closed spontaneously in the initial visits (53; 17.26%). Further, eleven patients have undergone a surgical closure (3.58%) and three patients died early (0.9%). In contrast, almost a third of the cyanotic group died shortly after the diagnosis was made (8; 32%), and seven patients were successfully operated (28%); whereas ten cases offered a close monitoring with frequent follow ups (40%).

Keywords:
Congenital heart defects, echocardiography, cyanosis, Libya.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mahmmed, R., Alhagamhmad, M., Goobae, N., Shaki, A., & Masood, M. (2020). Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease among Libyan Children: A Single Centre Study. Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, 9(4), 78-84. https://doi.org/10.9734/ca/2020/v9i430152
Section
Original Research Article

References

Pedram Nazari, Mohammad Davoodi, Mohammad Faramarzil, Mohammad Bahadoram1, Nozar Dorestan. Prevalence of congenital heart disease: A single center experience in Southwestern of Iran. Global Journal of Health Science. 2016;8(10): 1916-9736.

Donghua Xie, Junqun Fang, Zhiyu Liu, Hua Wang, Tubao Yang, Zhenqiu Sun, et al. Epidemiology and major subtypes of congenital heart defects in hunan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;7(31):e11770.

Aburawi E. The burden of congenital heart disease in Libya. Libyan Journal of Medicine. 2006;1:120-122.

Ashraf Abou-Taleb, Marwa A. Abdel Hamid, Mohamed A, Bahkeet M. Clinical profile of cyanotic congenital heart disease in neonatal intensive care unit at Sohag University Hospital. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics. 2017;18:47-51.

Iman Ali Ba- Saddik, Suha Abdul Malik Aghbari, Nuha Abdul Malik Aghbari. Clinical pattern of congenital heart disease among children dmitted to Al-Sadaka Teaching Hospital, Aden. Yemen (Jan- Dec 2016). EC Paediatrics. 2019;9(2): 1117-1122.

Abraheem M. Mansour. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease in South Libya. Sebha University Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018;13(1).

Khaled Amro. Pattern of congenital heart disease in Jordan. Eur J Gen Med. 2009; 6(3):161-165

Bhushan Deo, Jayashree Jadhav, Nitin Idgampalli, Neeta Deo, Rachana Sabale. Study of clinical profile of congenital heart disease in paediatric age group. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research. 2015;4(4):269-272.

Hashim ST, Alamri RA, Bakraa R, Rawas R, Farahat F, Waggass R. The association between maternal age and the prevalence of congenital heart disease in newborns from 2016 to 2018 in single cardiac center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2020; 12(3):e7463.

Yingjuan Liu, Sen Chen, Liesi Zuhlke, Graeme C Black, Mun-kit Choy, Ningxiu Li, et al. Global birth prevalence of congenital heart defects 1970–2017: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 260 studies. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2019;48( 2):455–463.

Kapoor R, Gupta S. Prevalence of congenital heart disease, Kanpur, India. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(4):309- 311.

Bagher Nikyar, Maliheh Sedehi, Arezo Mirfazeli, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease among neonates in Gorgan, Northern Iran (2007- 2008). Iran J Pediatr. 2011;21(3):307- 312.

Peng-Fei Sun, Gui-Chun Ding, Min-Yu Zhang, Sheng-Nan He, Yu Gao, Jian-Hua Sheng-Nan He, Yu Gao, Jian-Hua. Prevalence of congenital heart disease among infants from 2012 to 2014 in Langfang, China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2017; 130(9):1069–1073.

Mohamed T Ali, Salah M Hamad. Prevalence of congenital heart disease among children in Aljabal Alkhdar region, Libya: An echocardiographic study. Al Mukhtar Journal of Sciences. 2016;32(01): 115-122.

Kalpesh Jain, Bhupesh Jain, Devendra Sareen. A study of the clinical and etiological profile of patients presenting with congenital heart diseases. International Journal of Biomedical Research. 2018;09(01):57-62.

Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli, Kalyan Chakravarthy Gondi, Sravya Madana. Evaluation of congenital heart disease clinically and by echocardiography in children of age group 0-12 years. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2019;6(2):507-514.

Feredegn Talarge, Girma Seyoum, Moges Tamirat. Congenital heart defects and associated factors in children with congenital anomalies. Ethiop Med J. 2018; 56(4):335-342.

Mohammed Ali Hussein Badi, Barbara Elena Garcia Triana. Congenita heart diseases in neonatal unit at AL- Wahda Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Aden Yemen (2012-2013). Ciencias Medicas J. Scopus. 2014;13(5).

Alabdulgader. Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: Current epidemiology and future projections. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2006;12( 2):157-167.

Samanek M. Boy: Giral ratio in Children born with different forms of cardiac malformation. Pediatric Cardiology. 1994; 15:53- 57.

Villia Damayantie, Sri Endah Rahayuningsih, et al. Congenital heart disease characteristics in low birth weight infant at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Althea Medical Journal. 2019; 6(3):115-22.

Feltes TF, Bacha E, Beekman III RH, Cheatham JP, Feinstein JA, Gomes AS, et al. Indications for cardiac catheterization and intervention in pediatric cardiac disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(22):2607-52.

McRobb CM, Mejak BL, Ellis WC, Lawson DS, Twite MD. Recent advances in pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. In Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications. 2014;18(2):153-160.

Hoffman JI. The global burden of congenital heart disease. Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 2013;24(4):141.

Mandalenakis Z, Giang KW, Eriksson P, Liden H, Synnergren M, Wåhlander H, et al. Survival in children with congenital heart disease: Have we reached a peak at 97%?. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020;e017704.

Mocumbi AO, Lameira E, Yaksh A, Paul L, Ferreira MB, Sidi D. Challenges on the management of congenital heart disease in developing countries. International journal of cardiology. 2011;148(3):285-8.