A Comprehensive Review on Biomarker and Its Role in Diseases

Vankodoth Sireesha *

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

Faiqua Fatima

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

Shafeen Sultana

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

Mutta Shiva Sai Kumar

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

Y. Pravarsha

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

Rama Rao Tatikonda

Department of Pharm D, CMR College of Pharmacy, Medchal, Hyderabad, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Biomarkers are essential to clinical practice. Understanding the organized definition, types, and roles of biomarkers in various clinical phases and diseases is crucial for understanding the significance of biomarkers in healthcare and medical research. This data highlights the significance of biomarkers in prognosis prediction, therapeutic decision guidance, and the advancement of personalized medicine, in addition to their role in illness diagnosis.

The division of biomarkers into molecular, cellular, and imaging types offers a thorough summary of the various modalities that are employed in biomarker research. In addition, the segmentation according to clinical phases, which differentiates between prognostic, therapeutic, and diagnostic biomarkers, deepens the conversation by emphasizing the diverse functions that biomarkers fulfill in patient treatment.

In the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of a wide range of diseases, biomarkers are a component of a relatively new and perfect clinical instrument. Using biomarkers to research different aspects of diseases, develop new drugs, and track possible therapeutic intervention results has many advantages. They contribute to drug development, personalized medicine, and therapeutic interventions. The aim is to develop biomarkers with higher sensitivity and specificity to enhance decision-making and simplify the drug development process, add depth to the discussion, emphasizing the varied roles of biomarkers in patient care.

Keywords: Drug development, biomarkers, pharmaceutical discovery, pathogenic processes

How to Cite

Sireesha , V., Fatima , F., Sultana , S., Kumar , M. S. S., Pravarsha , Y., & Tatikonda , R. R. (2024). A Comprehensive Review on Biomarker and Its Role in Diseases . Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, 13(1), 75–81. https://doi.org/10.9734/ca/2024/v13i1395


Download data is not yet available.


De Gramont, Watson S, Ellis LM, Rodón J, Tabernero J, De Gramont A, Hamilton SR. Pragmatic issues in biomarker evaluation for targeted therapies in cancer, Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol., 2015;12.

Beasley VR, Levengood JM. Principles of Ecotoxicology, Veterinary Toxicology, Elsevier Inc. ;2012.

Godfrey A, Vandendriessche B, Bakker JP, Fitzer‐Attas C, Gujar N, Hobbs M, Liu Q, Northcott CA, Parks V, Wood WA. Fit‐for‐purpose biometric monitoring technologies: leveraging the laboratory biomarker experience, Clin. Transl. Sci., 2021;14.

Group BDW, Atkinson Jr AJ, Colburn WA, DeGruttola VG, DeMets DL, Downing GJ, Hoth DF, Oates JA, Peck CC, Schooley RT. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 2001; 69.

MacNamara J, Eapen DJ, Quyyumi A, Sperling L. Novel biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment: current status and future directions, Future Cardiol., 2015;11.

Ali Bodaghi, Nadia Fattahi, Ali Ramazani, Biomarkers: Promising and valuable tools towards diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of Covid-19 and other diseases, Heliyon. 2023;9(2)

Laterza OF, Hendrickson RC, Wagner JA. Molecular biomarkers, Drug Inf. J., 2007; 41.

Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Toraño JS, Falcon-Perez JM, Williams C, Reichardt N, Boons G-J. Mass spectrometry for glycan biomarker discovery, Trends Anal. Chem., 2018;100.

Dhama K, Latheef SK, Dadar M, Samad HA, Munjal A, Khandia R, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Yatoo M, Bhatt P. Biomarkers in stress related diseases/ disorders: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic values, Front. Mol. Biosci., 2019; 91. Available:10.3389/fmolb.2019.00091

Kailemia MJ, Park D, Lebrilla CB. Glycans and glycoproteins as specific biomarkers for cancer, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2017;409.

Nadkarni GN, Chauhan K, Rao V, Ix JH, Shlipak MG, Parikh CR, Coca SG. Effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on kidney tubule injury: Findings from the ACCORD trial study participants, Am. J. Kidney Dis., 2019;73.

Dadar M, Dhama K, Iqbal H, Munjal A, Khandia R, Karthik K, Sachan S, Latheef SK, Samad HA, Joshi SK, Molecular signatures of biomarkers in cancer development, diagn osis, and its prognostic accuracy, Curr. Biomark., 2016;6.

Li T, Zheng Y, Sun H, Zhuang R, Liu J, Liu T, Cai W. K-Ras mutation detection in liquid biopsy and tumor tissue as prognostic biomarker in patients with pancreatic cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis, Med. Oncol., 2016; 33:1-16. Available:10.1007/s12032-016-0777-1

Giovanella L, Garo ML, Ceriani L, Paone G, Campenni’ A, D'Aurizio F. Procalcitonin as an alternative tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Clin. Endocrinol., 106 (2021).

Li S, Yang X, Yang J, Zhen J, Zhang D. Serum microRNA-21 as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Clin. Exp. Med., 2016;16.

Ye B, Cramer DW, Skates SJ, Gygi SP, Pratomo V, Fu L, Horick NK, Licklider LJ, Schorge JO, Berkowitz RS. Haptoglobin-α subunit as potential serum biomarker in ovarian cancer: identification and characterization using proteomic profiling and mass spectrometry, Clin. Cancer Res., 2003; 9.

Randle RW, Balentine CJ, Leverson GE, Havlena JA, Sippel RS, Schneider DF, Pitt SC. Trends in the presentation, treatment, and survival of patients with medullary thyroid cancer over the past 30 years. Surgery. 2017 Jan 1;161(1):137-46. Available:10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.053

Wells Jr SA, Asa SL, Dralle H, Elisei R, Evans DB, Gagel RF, Lee N, Machens A, Moley JF, Pacini F, Raue F. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma: the American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2015;25(6):567-610.

Censi S, Manso J, Benvenuti T, Piva I, Iacobone M, Mondin A, Torresan F, Basso D, Crivellari G, Zovato S, Mian C. The role of procalcitonin in the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer. Eur Thyroid J. 2023 Jan 19;12(1):e220161. PMID: 36476491; PMCID: PMC9874959.DOI: 10.1530/ETJ-22-0161.


Wilson ME, Boumaza I, Lacomis D, Bowser R. Cystatin C: A Candidate Biomarker for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PLOS ONE. 2010;5(12):e15133. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015133.

Hussain SJ, Selvaraj J, Mohapatra MM, Rajendiran S, Clinical utility of pleural fluid YKL-40 as a marker of malignant pleural effusion, Curr. Probl. Cancer, 2019; 43.

Kayhan S, Gumus A, Cinarka H, Murat N, Yilmaz A, Bedir R, Sahin U. The clinical utility of pleural YKL-40 levels in diagnosing pleural effusions. J Thorac Dis. 2013 Oct;5(5):634-40. PMID: 24255777; PMCID: PMC3815719.

DOI: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.09.19.

Cho SY, Hur M. Hepcidin-25 as a novel kidney biomarker for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury, J. Lab. Med., 2021;41.

Choi N, Rigatto C, Zappitelli M, Gao A, Christie S, Hiebert B, Arora RC, Ho J. Urinary Hepcidin-25 Is Elevated in Patients That Avoid Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiac Surgery. Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2018;5:2054358117744224. PMID: 29399365; PMCID: PMC5788097. DOI: 10.1177/2054358117744224.

Arsik I, Frediani JK, Frezza D, Chen W, Ayer T, Keskinocak P, Jin R, Konomi JV, Barlow SE, Xanthakos SA, Alanine aminotransferase as a monitoring biomarker in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a secondary analysis using TONIC trial data, Children. 2018;5.


Joshi S, Lewis SJ, Creanor S, Ayling RM. Age-related faecal calprotectin, lactoferrin and tumour M2-PK concentrations in healthy volunteers. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2010;47:259–263. DOI: 10.1258/acb.2009.009061