https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/issue/feed Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal 2024-05-23T13:10:45+00:00 Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal contact@journalca.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-520X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/CA/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Cardiology and Angiology research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/403 Vasospastic Angina: The Journey to Understanding and Easy Management 2024-04-13T10:36:04+00:00 P. M Mulendele mulendelepatrick2@gmail.com M.S Bettar M. Njie malick1njie@hotmail.com M.B Charfo B.E Ovaga M. Bouziane M. Haboub S. Arous M.G Benouna A. Drighil R. Habbal <p>Vasospastic angina (VSA), initially described by Prinzmetal as a form of angina occurring at rest, in the second part of the night and associated with transient changes in repolarization such as ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The phenomenon of coronary spasm can occur in patients with or without coronary atherosclerosis. It can be focal or diffuse in one or more epicardial arteries. Its incidence is unknown and highly dependent on the population studied, with higher rates in Asian populations. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been put forward to explain its occurrence, in particular endothelial dysfunction and hyperreactivity of smooth muscle cells related to damage to Rhokinase. Increased sympathetic nerve activity at night has shown to be involved in the mechanism underlying multivessel coronary spasm and predisposing genetic factors. Diagnosis can be easily establish using Coronary Artery Vasospastic Disorders Summit diagnostic criteria for vasospastic angina; adapted from Beltrame et al. VSA is one of the main aetiologies of MINOCA as stipulated in the last guidelines of ESC on ACS. Management of vasospastic angina is well codified based on lifestyle changes, established pharmacological therapies, control of risk factors, avoidance of triggering factors and possibly the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in cases of associated obstructive coronary artery disease, or an automatic implantable defibrillator.</p> 2024-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/407 The Role of Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes in Ischemic Heart Disease: Friend or Foe? 2024-04-25T13:30:22+00:00 S. P. N. N. Senadeera nimeshans.zoology@stu.cmb.ac.lk D. S. H. S. Peiris D. T. K. Fernando D. U. Kottahachchi C. B. Ranaweera cbr2704@kdu.ac.lk <p>Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In recent years research has increasingly focused on the interplay between the white blood cells and the development and progression of IHD. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and Monocytes play an important role in the immune system and were found to have dual roles in both protective mechanisms and harmful effects. Neutrophils are traditionally viewed as first responders to tissue injury. Their rapid infiltration aids in the clearance of cellular debris and pathogens, while the release of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators can exacerbate tissue damage. Additionally, neutrophils participate in intercommunication with endothelial cells and platelets, influencing the progression of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Lymphocytes, a key player in adaptive immune response, similarly exhibit a dual role in IHD. Their involvement extends beyond immune surveillance. Monocytes contribute to phagocytosis and tissue repair while some of their actions cause atherosclerotic plaque instability. This review provides an overview of IHD, covering its prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and the involvement of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, in the disease process.</p> 2024-04-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/408 An Updated Review on the Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells for Treating Cardiovascular Disorders 2024-04-27T12:22:23+00:00 Mehrab Manteghian Manteghian.mehrab@gmail.com Muhammad Umar Liaqat Joshua Ferdinand <p>Despite significant progress in the field of medicine, cardiovascular illnesses continue to be the primary cause of mortality on a global scale. The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular illnesses necessitates the exploration of novel and potential therapeutic strategies to address the escalating risk associated with CVDs. Stem cell therapy has emerged as the central focus of regenerative cardiovascular medicine, surpassing all other treatments and therapies. Multiple clinical trials and studies have demonstrated that stem cell therapy, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, is the most appealing approach for treating cardiac disorders due to their significant therapeutic potential. Recent research have shown that mesenchymal stem cells have a positive impact on several cardiac muscle diseases, such as heart failure, problems with blood vessel lining, damage caused by lack of blood flow, and high blood pressure in the lungs. This study specifically examines the potential, preconditioning techniques, methods of administration, and mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).</p> 2024-04-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/409 Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis Secondary to a Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma Tumor Invasion in a Young Adult Male: What a Rare Occurrence! 2024-04-30T12:07:31+00:00 P.M Mulendele I. Rezzouk M. Njie malicknjoknjie@gmail.com M.S Bettar AL Timimi A. Assklou M. Bouziane M. Haboub S. Arous R. Habbal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cardiac involvement is a rare unusual localization of Hodgkin lymphoma, as it’s known that primary lymphomas of the heart are rare. They develop primarily in the right atrium, and extend to the pericardium in about one third of the cases. Pulmonary infundibular stenosis secondary to mediastinal mass Hodgkin lymphoma invasion is rare but not impossible especially in relapse cases.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A rare case of a young adult patient diagnosed with Hodgkin Lymphoma under chemotherapy presents a relapse of his pathology associated with heart failure; predominantly, right heart failure due to extension of the mediastinal mass tumor to the right cavities of the heart causing pulmonary infundibular stenosis which is a rare occurrence. He was put under an intense chemotherapy and symptomatic heart failure treatment with close follow-up after multi-disciplinary discussions including cardiologist, onco-hematologists and cardiothoracic surgeons. Three months later, a significant reduction of the mass was observered.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> Pulmonary infundibular stenosis secondary to mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma invasion is a rare entity of secondary tumors of the heart. Multimodal imagery is the key tool for diagnosis. There prognosis depend on multiple factors but generally good in younger adult patients compared to aged individuals.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/411 Supraventricular Tachy-arrhythmia Revealing an Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricle Cardiomyopathy in An Adolescent: Case Report 2024-05-16T10:27:01+00:00 B. Mohamed Ghoulame boutarnv@gmail.com H. Siyam P. M. Mulendele S.M. Obeidat M. Bouziane M. Haboub S. Arous G. Bennouna A. Drighil R. Habbal <p>Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a genetic disease that affects young people. As its name indicates, it carries a risk of ventricular rhythm disturbances and sudden death, particularly during sporting efforts emphasizing the need for early diagnosis of the disease. The most frequently observed symptoms are palpitations, syncope, clinical signs of right heart failure and cardiac arrest. These clinical manifestations, as well as the progression and prognosis of the disease have been well studied and described in the literature in adult population unlike in children where it has not been well elucidated. Its diagnosis is based on the morphological characteristics of the right ventricle during cardiac ultrasound and especially on cardiac MRI. The extent of morphological abnormalities and the frequency of occurrence of rhythm disorders make it possible to stratify the disease risk. High-risk patients should benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Treatment is based on moderate physical exercise, beta blockers medical therapy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in certain cases.</p> <p>We report a case of a 15-year-old child, with a history of first-degree consanguinity and undocumented heart disease in the father who consulted for chest pain over 8 days. The clinical presentation, electrical signs, cardiac ultrasound and imaging made it possible to make the diagnosis of ARVC.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/412 Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty in a Patient with Situs Inversus with Dextrocardia: A Case Report 2024-05-21T09:54:40+00:00 Kalyan Munde Mohan Paliwal drmohanpaliwal@gmail.com Anant Munde Samkit Mutha Hariom Kolapkar Anagh T S Jayakrishna Niari <p>Situs inversus with dextrocardia is a rare congenital disorder. There is a rare coincidence of rheumatic severe mitral stenosis in a patient with situs inversus and dextrocardia. Most of these patients undergo surgery due to technical difficulty, here we report a case of a 41-year-old male managed successfully with percutaneous intervention. Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV) is feasible in these rare group patient with some additional modifications of the standard Accura balloon technique. Procedure should be carried out under Transthoracic echocardiography (TEE) guidance with surgical team standby in case emergency need of surgery. Despite all the precautions, careful watch on these patients has to be kept during immediate post procedure phase for at least 12 hours for any untoward complication.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/414 Rare Case of Right Ventricular Perforation during Pericardiocentesis: A Case Report 2024-05-23T13:10:45+00:00 O. Moufid om.moufid@gmail.com B. Abdalani I. Abbassi M. Bouziane M. Bennouna R. Habbal <p>Iatrogenic cardiac injuries are potential complications arising from diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in cardiology, including interventions like cardiac catheterization, coronary angioplasty, and pacemaker implantation ­­[1,2]. Pericardial tamponade can occur, with a prevalence of 0.12%, often requiring urgent intervention such as pericardiocentesis.</p> <p>Patients with chronic pericardial effusion and signs of tamponade may adapt to gradual fluid accumulation, but vigilance for iatrogenic injuries remains crucial. Transthoracic echocardiography aids in rapid diagnosis and guides timely interventions [3]. Therefore, the right ventricular perforation seems to be one of these complications, and it may occur during pericardiocentesis.</p> <p>Surgical approaches for acute tamponades vary, with median sternotomy enabling comprehensive exploration [4]. Echocardiographic monitoring can signal clinical deterioration, necessitating prompt fluid management and early intervention to optimize outcomes. Although, the therapies in right ventricular perforation are variable. In our case, we emphasize about the conservative approach.</p> 2024-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/402 Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) in Patients of Cryptogenic Stroke AND Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): A Real World Experience 2024-04-13T07:37:00+00:00 Muzzafar Mohi-Ud-Din Hakeem Nadeem U Rehman Madhukar H.M H.S Natraj Setty drnatrajsetty75@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stroke, a leading cause of brain tissue damage, presents a significant health concern globally. Cryptogenic stroke (CS), with an unclear origin, poses diagnostic challenges, with the patent foramen ovale (PFO) implicated in some cases. This study aims to investigate PFO prevalence in North India among patients with cryptogenic stroke, addressing current research gaps.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess PFO occurrence in patients with cryptogenic stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) using Echocardiography.</p> <p><strong>Methods &amp; Results: </strong>This preliminary study analyzed PFO prevalence in patients with CS and TIA from February 2020 to November 2021, involving 25 participants. Descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test were employed. Key findings include a mean age of 44.80±9.13 years, 64% men, and 36% women. Ischemic stroke accounted for 72% of cases, while TIA represented 28%. PFO prevalence was 44%, with no significant gender-PFO association. No correlations were found between stroke type and PFO presence, nor were comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study highlights a clinically significant distribution of PFO presence but no notable association between stroke type and PFO presence. These findings contribute to understanding PFO's role in cryptogenic stroke and have implications for clinical practice.</p> 2024-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/404 Blood Pressure Pattern among Young Adults Using Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in South-South Nigeria 2024-04-19T06:47:41+00:00 Chibuike Eze Nwafor eze.nwafor@uniport.edu.ng Crown Clement <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hypertension (HTN) is a significant public health concern worldwide, including Nigeria, with its prevalence steadily rising. Although HTN has historically been associated with older adults, studies have revealed an increasing frequency of the condition in younger adults. This presents unique challenges and implications for long-term health outcomes. In Nigeria, HTN in young individuals is a problem that receives little attention because it is still mistakenly thought of as an illness that only affects the elderly. To dispel this myth, this study aims to identify hypertensive young persons and to investigate the levels and patterns of hypertension in young adults utilizing ABPM in southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study was conducted among young adults aged 18-39 in Southern Nigeria. Participants underwent ABPM to assess their BP levels and patterns over 24 hours. Demographic data, lifestyle factors, and medical history were also collected. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were employed to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study consisted of 111 participants, 53.2% males and 46.8% females, with a mean age of 32.9 years. Tobacco consumption was reported by 10% of respondents, while 43.2% reported alcohol consumption. Significant differences in blood pressure parameters between genders were observed during the wake period, with males showing higher average systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. During sleep, males exhibited higher average systolic and mean arterial pressures, but lower average heart rate compared to females. Good BP control was observed in 48.65% of participants, with the majority exhibiting a non-dipping pattern (48.65%) followed by good dipping (36.04%). Masked hypertension, white coat hypertension, and anxiety-related BP were observed in 1%, 1.80%, and 4.50% of cases, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed a majority with good blood pressure control, yet a substantial portion exhibited sub-optimal control, emphasizing the continued need for vigilance and interventions in cardiovascular health. Therefore, health practitioners should prioritize raising awareness of hypertension in young adults and promoting early lifestyle changes to mitigate future risks.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/405 Diurnal BP Variations among Gender and Age Groups in 1000 Patients in a Cardiac Facility in The South-South Region of Nigeria 2024-04-19T13:14:35+00:00 Chibuike Eze Nwafor eze.nwafor@uniport.edu.ng Crown Clement <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease globally. Office blood pressure (OBP) is standard, but Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) offers more comprehensive assessment, yet is underutilized in southern Nigeria. Therefore, this study aims to systematically evaluate the blood pressure variables (BPV) using ABPM in a diverse group of people in south-south Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Gender distribution and age categories were noted. ABPM variables, like average systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR), were measured during wake and sleep. Analysis identified gender and age-related ABPM differences.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were more males than females (55% vs 45%). The study revealed significant differences in blood pressure measurements between genders and age group during wake and sleep periods. During wake, males had higher systolic and diastolic BP. The mean systolic blood pressure was 135.3 mmHg ± 14.3 and 131.4 mmHg ± 14.5 for males and females, respectively (p value = 0&lt;0.001). During sleep, females exhibited lower diastolic blood pressure compared to males (73.5 mmHg ± 10.4 vs. 76.0 mmHg ± 10.9) (p value = 0.002). Age-related variations were observed, with older individuals (&gt;60 years) showing higher average systolic BP compared to other age groups during wake (135.1 ±15.8) and sleep (129.4 ±18.01) periods (p = 0.0083, p = 0.0001, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> This study contributes to our understanding of the evolving trends in day and night ABPM variables among patients in South-South Nigeria. The findings show the importance of comprehensive cardiovascular assessments to accurately evaluate and manage cardiovascular health in diverse patient populations.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/406 Real World Experience of the First Cardio-Oncology Unit Implantation in Morocco 2024-04-20T09:58:16+00:00 Rachida Habbal habbalhck@gmail.com Anas Maaroufi Safia Ouarrak Rime Benmalek Hajar Bendahou Soukaina Zahri Khawla Chawki Yasmina Berrada Safia Zafad Ghali Benjelloune Meryem Charkaoui Nezha Taoufiq <p>Cardiotoxicity presents a multifaceted challenge with significant implications. Our investigation delving into cardiotoxicity linked with Anthracyclines and Trastuzumab has shed light on these agents as frequent culprits, revealing a spectrum of cardiac complications like heart failure, arrhythmias, hypertension, QTc prolongation, and arterial and venous thromboses. However, the true prevalence of cardiotoxicity is often underestimated due to delayed effects, patient attrition post-remission, and the emergence of novel therapeutic agents.</p> <p>The collaboration between cardiology and oncology is expanding, encompassing Cardio-Hematology and its impact on conditions like multiple myeloma, leukemia, and lymphomas. This evolving convergence underscores the necessity for interdisciplinary collaboration.</p> <p>The study findings highlight the significance of adhering to guidelines while acknowledging that guidelines should serve as aids rather than substitutes for clinical judgment within multidisciplinary tumor boards (MTBs). Enhanced by ongoing research, these guidelines serve as instruments empowering clinicians to make well-informed decisions tailored to individual patient needs.</p> <p>Scientific research remains pivotal, guiding progress and offering promise for enhanced outcomes in the global battle against cancer.</p> 2024-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/410 Assessment of Medication Adherence in Hypertensive Patients among Warangal Population 2024-05-13T10:48:42+00:00 Haritha Bandi Sampada Nandala Shalini Gudepu Syed Umar Farooq suf.ccop@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is the most common disease in India where 1 in 4 people suffering with it. In order to achieve the intended therapeutic outcomes, medication adherence is essential. Patients with hypertension must adhere to their disease by taking their prescriptions on time, following their diet, and making other lifestyle modifications. This study aims to assess medication adherence in Warangal population among hypertensive patients with comorbidities, social habits, medication use etc.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The aim of the study is to assess the level of medication adherence and to investigate predictors of medication adherence and controlled hypertension in patients and to identify the factors enhancing medication adherence. The secondary aim is to describe the extent and type of medication used in patient population in Warangal.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> An Observational, retrospective and cross - sectional study was employed to assess the predictors and level of medication adherence in hypertensive patients.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Cardiology, Sri Sri Cardiac Centre and Bhageerath Cardiac Care Centre, Hanamkonda, Warangal. The study was conducted from October 2022 to April 2023 for about a duration of 7 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study includes 300 Hypertensive patients (Male - 169, Female 131) of age range between 20-90 years with various comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypothyroidism, dyslipidemia, COPD. We also included various sociodemographic factors like Gender, Age, Literacy, Income status, Alcohol consumption, Smoking status, Marital status, Controlled and Uncontrolled hypertension, usage of various drugs and Duration of hypertension. We observed Medication Adherence by using MMAS 8 scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Low levels of medication adherence among female patients (41%), educated patients (58%) compared to other groups because of awareness about their condition. Low adherence is noted in patients with low-income status ( 9.6% ), High adherence in nonsmokers (73.3%) and non-alcoholic (60.6%) compared to smokers (10.6%) and alcoholics (12.6%) and high adherence is reported in married (85%) category as compared to unmarried (2.6%), Patients with low comorbidities reported high adherence compared to patients with low comorbidities. High medication adherence is reported in uncontrolled blood pressure (50.3%) and in patients with \(\le\) year (24.6%) and 2-6 years (28%) of duration of hypertension. High adherence is noted with 2 combination therapy (23.6%), most of the participants are adherent to Telmisartan+ Metoprolol (25.2%) followed by Telmisartan+ hydrochlorothiazide (19.3%). According to MMAS-8 scale most of the patients reported (Q1) and (Q6), 91.3% of our study population were adherent to their medication, 7% were moderately adherent and 1.6% were low adherent to their medication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> 91.3% of Medication adherence is noted in hypertensive patients in Warangal population. 8.6% of Medication Non-Adherence is noted and various factors for nonadherence were reported by patients. However various methods and apps should be developed to overcome the Medication Non-Adherence.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalca.com/index.php/CA/article/view/413 Echocardiographic Detection of Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Type Two Diabetes Mellitus 2024-05-23T09:26:27+00:00 Laila Nazmy Shabaan Mahmoud Abd El Khalek Abou Omar Mohammed Naseem Hussien Ekram Sadek Saeed <p><strong>Background:</strong> Before systolic dysfunction and symptomatic heart, diabetic cardiomyopathy begins with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Echocardiographic modalities were used to detect subclinical LV impairment in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics. This study aimed to identify subclinical left ventricular impairment in asymptomatic patients with type two diabetes using several echocardiographic techniques.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> In the present prospective cohort study, 30 adults over 18 having type II diabetes mellitus (DM) (Group I) and 20 normal controls (Group II) were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography and 12-lead ECG were performed on all individuals.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Pulsed wave Doppler techniques revealed significant variation in transmitral flow velocities between groups, including septal e', lateral mitral annulus early velocity (e'), septal early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)\e', Lateral E\e', and average E\e'. EF was significantly decreased in group I (P &lt; 0.001). With a p-value of 0.001, LVESD was significantly higher in group I. The septal, lateral, and average systolic mitral annulus (S') motions in group II were significantly larger than those in group I. When comparing groups, I and II, the first showed much longer myocardial performance index (MPI) and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT). The ET for Group I was significantly lower than that of Group II. The study group exhibited significantly greater levels of fasting blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar, and haemoglobin A1C (HBA1C) compared to the control group (P &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Patients having diabetes mellitus exhibited considerably greater levels of DM history fasting glucose levels, postprandial glucose levels, haemoglobin A1C (HBA1C), E/e´ ratio, LVESD, IVCT, and MPI, while having significantly lower EF and ET relative to the healthy group.</p> 2024-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.