Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are rare congenital abnormalities with incidence of about 1% in the general population.2Unfortunately, despite the low incidence, CAA can cause sudden cardiac death. Identifying the course of the artery is critical for appropriate management. We present a rare case of the left coronary artery arising from the right coronary ostium with special emphasis on normal coronary artery development as possible insight for treatment of diseased heart.
The Prolactin (PRL) hormone, a very ancient hormone, first discovered by Oscar Riddle and his colleagues in the late 1920s, is a 199 amino acid multifunctional polypeptide hormone, that has been found in all vertebrates to influence more than 300 physiologic functions of the body. This review discusses the prolactin structure, mechanism of synthesis, control of secretions, receptors, its intracellular signal transduction and its possible implications on the cardiovascular system.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in acutely ill medical patients. VTE prophylaxis can be assured by pharmacological strategies and, when contraindicated, by non pharmacological measures, such as early mobilization, graduated compression stockings (GCS), intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) or inferior vena caval filters. Literature evidence on non pharmacological VTE prophylaxis lacks and guidelines are not standardized for hospitalized ill medical patients. Much recently randomized clinical trials in patients with stroke and other medical diseases, seem to increase doubts and reduce certainties in this context. In this review we provide information about non pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in acutely hospitalized ill medical patients.
The third generation biodegradable Drug Eluting Stent (DES) are being evaluated and being introduced in clinical practice. They have been DESigned to overcome limitations associated with durable polymer and a persistent metallic stent scaffold which could be related to late target lesion revascularization (TLR) and very late stent thrombosis (VLST). Although a recent pooled data analysis found that biodegradable polymer stents were superior for TLR and VLST compared with first generation Sirolimus Eluting Stent (SES), superiority has not been demonstrated against second generation Everolimus eluting stents (EES) and is yet to be conclusively proven in randomized trials. This paper reviews the key features, recent trial data, and future directions of the third generation of DES technology including stents with fully biodegradable scaffolds, stents with biodegradable polymer, and polymer free stents.
Background: In the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region, nearly one million deaths are caused by cardio-vascular diseases every year. During the last decade, the number of deaths caused by stroke increased by 23%. Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioural risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and metabolic risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and raised lipids.
Methods: This is a systematic review on cerebrovascular diseases and associated risk factors in WHO Eastern Mediterranean countries. Medline, Science Direct, and other sources were used to get peer reviewed papers dealing with the review theme. The search was limited to publications between 1990 and 2013 (30th June).
Results and Discussion: According to the inclusion criteria, 45 papers were included in the present review. The prevalence was found greater than 50% in 38 studies for hypertension, greater than 25% in 36 studies for diabetes, greater than 15% in 26 studies for smoking and greater than 25% in 19 studies for dyslipidemia. It was also indicated that incidence of stroke increases with ageing. The majority of studies found a prevalence of stroke higher in men than in women with a ratio male: female reaching 3.55:1 in one study.
Conclusion: Although at different levels of importance, all the studies reveal that hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking are crucial risk factors for stroke. This review also indicates a lack or scarcity of studies in many countries with an uneven contribution by country since 33% of studies are from Pakistan whereas North Africa (Egypt, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia) contributed with only 2 papers.