Open Access Clinical Practice Article

About Physical Bases of Heart Acting. Case of Healthy Women in Democratic Republic of Congo

A. B. Kunyima, S. N. Lusamba, A. M. Malumba, C. N. Kabele

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/22792

Background: The hypertension is probably the most important public health problem in our country. It is readily detectable and often leads to lethal complications such as heart failure if left untreated. Indeed among the multiple causes of the heart failure, the severe arterial hypertension can be quoted. It is known for example that the lengthy arterial hypertension entails concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, with the decrease of the compliance and a diastolic dysfunction; it can also entail a decrease of the systolic function due to an interstitial fibrosis or to the happening of a myocardic infarctus, and volumic overcharge can finally occur because of the left ventricle supplementary dilation and because of the apparition of a functional mitral failure.                                                                                                                                                              

Aim and Objective: Tremendous endeavors have been undertaken to find a global intensive physical parameter that will give quantitative scientific informations on both the healthy state and the hypertension state of the heart from the usual parameters (systolic and diastolic pressures, cardiac frequency).

Methodology: The experiments have been carried out upon one thousand healthy women of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) through different ages (years) from November to August 2015 at University of Kinshasa (DRC). The blood pressure measurements and calculations are our methodology of work.

Results: In this paper Kunyima equation, from compartmental analysis, has been proposed and in this equation the volumic cardiac power has been dialed and successfully correlated to , factor characterizing the artery state. The cardiac frequency has been found to be the kinetic constant of blood circulation.

Conclusion: The volumic cardiac power expressed in Kunyima equation has been a global intensive physical parameters of cardiac frequency and differential pressure. It has been more advantageous and more expressive than the usual parameters. Our burning desire has been to see this parameter on the future sphygmomanometers screen.


Open Access Case Study

Coronary Spasm as a Cause of Recurrent Chest Pain: A Case Report

Ragab Mahfouz, Mohamed Abdou

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/23024

Background: Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of ischemic heart diseases, including myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. However, the diagnosis of vasospastic angina is not always easy on the basis of symptoms alone.

Case Presentation: A 36 year- old- man was evaluated due to recurrent left sided chest pain of 8 months duration. He is a smoker, and otherwise physical examination was unremarkable. Electrocardiogram and blood tests were normal, apart from elevated serum concentrations of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. During the recovery phase of exercise treadmill test, the patient developed progressive ST-segment elevation at inferior leads II, III and aVF together with progressive ST-segment depression at precordial leads V1 to V5. The ECG showed gradually decreased heart rate with the development of sinus bradycardia that progressed rapidly to complete heart block. The patient collapsed with chest pain and hypotension. It took about 10 minutes for the ECG retuning to the baseline after medical management. The patient was referred to the coronary care unit for further management and underwent coronary angiogram. Coronary spasm was observed in the proximal segment of the right coronary artery. The patient received medical treatment after coronary angiogram and stood well for more than one year follow up.

Conclusion: Coronary spasm may lead to both recurrent chest pain and significant arrhythmia and the diagnosis often requires high index of suspicion and lab documentation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Delayed Heart Rate Recovery and Exaggerated Blood Pressure Response during Exercise Testing in Nigerian Normotensive Diabetics

Ebenezer Adekunle Ajayi, Adebayo T. Oyedeji, Akande Oladimeji Ajayi

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/23911

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical profile of normotensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with exercise related exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) and delayed heart rate recovery (HRR); and explore if there is relationship between ESBP and delayed HRR in them.

Materials and Methods: A total of 67 normotensive T2DM subjects underwent symptom limited maximal treadmill exercise using Bruce protocol. ESBP was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; delayed HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. Parameters of 36 subjects with ESBP were then compared with those of 31 subjects without ESBP.

Results: There were 36 (53.7%) of the subjects with ESBP. Subjects with ESBP response had higher BMI, 2-hours post-prandial plasma glucose, resting SBP and DBP. Of those with ESBP, 41.7% were males and 58.3% were females (X2=8.75, P=0.003). HRR was lower in subjects with ESBP compared with those without (23.00 ± 12.18 vs 38.55±22.69 beats/minute; P =0.001). The presence of abnormal HRR was 30.6% in subjects with ESBP response compared with 9.7% in subjects without (X2= 4.39, P = 0.036).

Conclusion: ESBP response to exercise is present in more than half of normotensive diabetics and about a third of those patients with ESBP have delayed HRR. Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, probably heightened sympathetic nervous system, may be responsible for these pathologies.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate on Cardiac Biomarkers in Pre-eclamptic Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Osun State South Western Nigeria

Stephen Olajide Awofadeju, Joshua Oloruntobi Imoru, Modupe Fisayo Asaolu

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/24537

Aims: This study investigated the effect of Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) on cardiac biomarkers in the management of pre-eclampsia in selected tertiary hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view to provide scientific report for the use of MgSO4 in the management of pre-eclampsia, and also to investigate likely adverse effects of MgSO4 on the biological functions of the heart.

Study Design: One-factor, two controls - six test groups quasi - experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between November 2013 and July 2014.

Methodology: A total of two hundred and sixty (260) subjects were recruited for the study, and were grouped into normotensive pregnant women at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=20/trimester), pre-eclamptic women not on MgSO4 at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=10/trimester) and pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=60/trimester). Also normotensive pregnant women at post-partum (n=20) and pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 at post-partum (n=60). Blood samples (10 mL venous blood) were collected, centrifuged and stored as plasma before subjection to biochemical analysis. Blood plasma was analyzed for cardiac biomarker using standard Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Spectrophotometric methods.

Results: Results revealed that cardiac biomarkers (plasma troponin, c-reactive protein and creatine) were significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 at both 2nd and 3rd trimesters compared to their counterparts not on MgSO4, while creatine-kinase, lactate dehydrogenase aspartate aminotransferase, and myoglobin showed non-significant reduction in same comparison. Moreover, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase that showed non-significant reduction, all cardiac biomarkers at 3-6 days post-partum decreased significantly compared to Pre-eclamptic Women on MgSO4 at 3rd trimester.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this work revealed that MgSO4 exhibits safe and protective roles devoid of any adverse effects on the hearts of pre-eclamptic women. This study further agrees with the existing usage of Magnesium Sulphate as an anti-convulsant in the management of pre-eclampsia.


Open Access Review Article

Prevalence of Risk Factors for the Metabolic Syndrome in a Global Perspective: A Brief Review

Plaban Chaudhuri, Riddhi Goswami, Mithun Das

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/23774

Metabolic syndrome refers to the clustering of a number of risk factors which have the potential to develop cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and thus causing an increase in mortality rate. The prediction is that by 2020, there will be an increase by almost 75% in global cardiovascular disease prevalence and almost all of this increase will occur in developing countries. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is also rapidly increasing all over the world at an alarming rate. In this paper, we have made an attempt to briefly review and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in India as well as other regions of the world. We have also compared the metabolic syndrome risk factors for premenopausal and postmenopausal women for sample populations in India, Iran and Korea.