Blood Pressure Values in Apparently Healthy Sudanese Population

Elnagi Y. Hago

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Aldeain University, Sudan.

Amir A. Bashir *

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Emam Almahadi University, Sudan and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, KSA.

Isam M. Abdalla

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, KSA and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazera University, Sudan.

Elmutaz E. Taha

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dongola University, Sudan.

Abdelmuhsin H. Mohamed

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadarif University, Sudan.

Kamal Awad

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadarif University, Sudan.

Abdarahiem A. Abeadalla

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan.

Ibrahim A. Ali

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National Ribat University, Sudan.

Omer A. Musa

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National Ribat University, Sudan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Introduction: Blood pressure is one of the most often measured clinical parameters, and assessment of blood pressure has a considerable impact on diagnostic decisions.

Objectives: To establish blood pressure normal reference values in Sudanese.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to November 2018. Eight hundred eighty-eight healthy adult Sudanese between the ages of 18 and 60 (203 men and 685 women) were randomly selected from the states of Khartoum, Northern, Gezira, Red Sea, and North Darfur. Clinical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurement data were collected.

Results: The mean for all volunteers was 113.93 ± 9.917 mmHg, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 75.29 ± 6.79 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP). SBP in men was 118.6 + 7.642 mmHg compared to 112.53 + 9.121 mmHg in women, while DBP in men was 77.51 + 5.984 mmHg compared to 74.63 + 6.844 mmHg in women. Beside the gender variations, blood pressure values also showed geographical variability. There was a positive connection between blood pressures (SBP and DBP), BMI, and age. (P < 0.05) was used for significance.

Conclusion: Blood pressure of Sudanese was found to be within the normal international range with gender and geographical variability. It showed positive correlation with age and BMI.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Sudanese, normal reference values

How to Cite

Hago , E. Y., Bashir , A. A., Abdalla , I. M., Taha , E. E., Mohamed , A. H., Awad , K., Abeadalla , A. A., Ali , I. A., & Musa , O. A. (2023). Blood Pressure Values in Apparently Healthy Sudanese Population. Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, 12(4), 123–129.


Brzezinski WA. Blood Pressure. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd ed. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 16. PMID: 21250111

Muchi Ditah Chobufo et al. The prevalence and clinical significance of nocturnal hypertension in pregnancy. Int J Cardiol Hypertens. 2020;6:100044. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijchy.2020.100044

Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002; 360(9349):1903–1913.

Carretero OA, Oparil S. Essential hypertension. Part I: definition and setiology. Circulation. 2000;101(3):329–33.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright Jr JT, Roccella EJ. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-52.

Angeli F, Reboldi G, Verdecchia P. The 2014 hypertension guidelines: Implications for patients and practitioners in Asia. Heart Asia. 2015;7(2):21-5.

Chan LCK, Ware RS, Kesting J, Marczak M, Good D, Shaw JTE. Association between anthropometric measures of obesity and insulin resistance in a self-selected group of indigenous Australians. Hear Lung Circ. 2007;16(4):303–4.

WALTON CH. High blood pressure. Manit Med Rev. 1947;27(4):212–6.

Davy KP, Hall JE. Obesity and hypertension: Two epidemics or one? .Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:803–813.

World Health Organization. The world health report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. World Health Organization; 2002.

Omima SAE. Normal Sudanese values of blood pressure among apparently healthy Sudanese age 50 years and above in Wad Madni City. Athesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of MSc degree in human physiology. B.V.Sc University of Khartoum; 2003.

Hago EY, Bashir AA, Abdalla IM, et. al. Normal blood pressure in adult Sudanese in Khartoum state, Sudan. Int J Health Sci Res. 2020;10(10):161-165.

Kiefe CI, Williams OD, Bild DE, Lewis CE, Hilner JE, Oberman A. Regional disparities in the incidence of elevated blood pressure among young adults: The CARDIA study. Circulation. 1997;96:1082–1088.

Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation. 1998;97(6):596-601.

Pearson TA. Cardiovascular disease in developing countries: Myths, realities and opportunities. Card Drugs Therapy. 1999; 13:95-104.

Reckelhoff JF. Gender differences in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension. 2001;37(5):1199-208.

Soranno D, Prasad V, Oberfield DR, Greco A, Sivaraman N, Drucker W. Hypertension and virilization caused by a unique dexoxycorticosterone and androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1999;12:215–220.

Talbott E, Guzick D, Clerici A, Berga S, Detre K, Weimer K, Kuller L. Coronary heart disease risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995;15:821–826.

Mattson LACG, Hamberger L, Samsioe G, Silfverstolpe G. Lipid metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Possible implications for an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Fertil Steril. 1984;42:579–584.

Weiner CP, Lizasain I, Baylis SA, Knowles RG, Charles IG, Moncada S. Induction of calcium dependent NO synthase by sex hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5212–5216.

Goetz RM, Morano I, Calovini T, Studer R, Holtz J. Increased expression of endothelial constitutive NO synthase in rat aorta during pregnancy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;205:905–910.

Schall JI. Sex differences in the response of blood pressure to modernization. American Journal of Human Biology. 1995;7:159–172.

Dressler WW, Bindon JR. Social status, social context, and arterial blood pressure. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 1994;85(18):82.

Suman V, Kapoor S. Effect of cold stimulus on blood pressure. In contemporary studies in human ecology: Human factor, resource management and development. Bhasin MK, Malik SL, Eds. Kamle Raj Enterprises. 1998;349–354.

Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Rastogi V, et al. Blood pressure trends, plasma insulin levels and risk factors in rural and urban elderly populations of north India. Coronary Artery Disease. 1997;8(7):463–468.

Mungreiphy NK, Kapoor S, Sinha R. Association between BMI, blood pressure, and age: Study among Tangkhul Naga tribal males of Northeast India. Journal of Anthropology. 2011;2011.

Dua S, Bhuker M, Sharma P, Dhall M, Kapoor S. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults. North American Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014;6(2):89.

Sorof J, Daniels S. Obesity hypertension in children. A problem of epidemic proportions. Hypertension. 2002;40:441–447.