Myocardial Infarction, Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19 Hospitalizations: Stats from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2020

Evbayekha Endurance *

St Luke’s Hospital, Chesterfield, Missouri, USA.

Okorare Ovie

Nuvance/Vassa Brother Medical Center, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.

Gabriel Alugba

Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria.

Anthony Willie

Igbinedion University, Benin City, Nigeria.

Abiola Yetunde Oyesile

Dnipropetrovsk Medical Institute, Ukraine.

Ede Omosumwen

Richmond Gabriel University School of Medicine, the Grenadines.

Chinemerem Martlin Emeasoba

Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.

Bolanle Hawau Salaudeen

Lagos State University College of Medicine, Lagos, Nigeria.

Anita Ogochukwu Onyekwere

Richmond Gabriel University School of Medicine, the Grenadines.

Awanwosa Valentine Agho

University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Omolola Okunromade

Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA.

Adeniyi Kayode Busari

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Agatha Olawunmi Akinsete

Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Erhieyovbe Emore

University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Ibilola Akorede Sanusi

UT Health Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Agunwa Nnaemeka

Western Illinois University, Macomb, Illinois, USA.

Victor Ameh Odoma

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Lovette Ugonma Oji

Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria.

Emeka Kenneth Okobi

Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.

Ohikhuai Eseose Evidence

Jackson State University, Mississippi, USA.

Okelue Edwards Okobi

Palm Springs General Hospital, Hialeah, Florida, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: The outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) hospitalizations and their association with myocardial injury and thrombosis were studied. We aimed to provide further insights into the impact of COVID-19 on modern-day healthcare.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample 2020 database. We used the International Classification of Disease Code, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) to identify all                 hospitalizations with COVID-19. We then conducted a subgroup analysis of the population of interest: Those who also developed myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and deep venous thrombosis.

Results: 335,799 hospitalizations with COVID. Of these, 1.6% (5,355) were diagnosed with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (COVNSTEMI) were identified. The mean age of COVID-19 hospitalizations was 71.7, with 60.50% males. The population prevalence included 53.10% Whites, 17.80% Blacks, 19.20% Hispanics, and 4.10% Asians. The average Length of stay (LOS) was 10 days, and 37.60% of patients died during hospitalization. The average cost of hospitalization (TOTCHG) was $156,633. The COVSTEMI group comprised 1,364 cases, with a mean age of 67.4, in-hospital mortality of 47.4%, and the mean TOTCHG was $177,600. The DVTCOV group comprised 2,869 cases, while the PECOV group had 4,828 cases. Male predominance was observed in both groups, with mean ages of 66 years in the DVTCOV group and 64 years in the PECOV group. The DVTCOV group had a LOS of 16 days, with 24.71% mortality, while the PECOV group had a LOS of 11 days, with 19.20% mortality. The average TOTCHG in the DVTCOV group was $248,900, whereas it was $145,378 in the PECOV group.

Conclusion: Our study revealed significant mortality rates across different groups, including 38% in COVNSTEMI, 47% in COVSTEMI, 25% in DVTCOV, and 19% in PECOV. These findings highlight the severity of COVID-related complications and the substantial financial burden of hospitalization.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Pulmonary embolism, PE, deep venous thrombosis, DVT, hospitalization

How to Cite

Endurance, E., Ovie, O., Alugba, G., Willie, A., Oyesile, A. Y., Omosumwen, E., Emeasoba, C. M., Salaudeen, B. H., Onyekwere, A. O., Agho, A. V., Okunromade, O., Busari, A. K., Akinsete, A. O., Emore, E., Sanusi, I. A., Nnaemeka, A., Odoma, V. A., Oji, L. U., Okobi, E. K., Evidence, O. E., & Okobi, O. E. (2023). Myocardial Infarction, Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19 Hospitalizations: Stats from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2020. Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, 12(4), 191–200.


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