Open Access Case Study

Anomalous Right Coronary Artery in Stress Cardiomyopathy: Coincidental or Contributory?

Glenmore Lasam, Jenny Lam

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/27252

We report a case of a 72-year-old female with no known comorbidities who presented with dizziness and dyspnea while exercising on a treadmill. Upon presentation in the hospital, she became hemodynamically unstable with multiple episodes of retching and vomiting, eventually intubated for airway protection. Electrocardiogram revealed minimal ST elevation in the lateral leads which prompted performance of coronary angiography that revealed mild luminal irregularities but noted to have an anomalous right coronary artery. Left ventriculography demonstrated severe left ventricular dysfunction with apical ballooning. Echocardiogram showed dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction with an ejection fraction of fifteen percent. The patient was aggressively managed including administration of inotropes, then gradually transitioned to cautious initiation of beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and aldosterone antagonist. Transthoracic echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging two weeks later showed improved ejection fraction of forty to fifty five percent respectively. The patient denied syncope, angina, or exertional dyspnea on subsequent health maintenance evaluation. 

Open Access Original Research Article

PAS Exfoliation in Watermelon and Aloe Vera Recuperate Glycogen in Heart Tissue Damaged by Cadmium in Adult Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus)

O. D. Omotoso, S. A. Adelakun, N. O. Amedu, U. P. Idoko, I. S. Oji, H. B. Akpan

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/24273

Cadmium (Cd) is a major concern of World Health Organization for public health and is a highly toxic element which is naturally present in all parts of the environment. Watermelon contributes nutritional agents as antioxidants and some specific amino acid. Aloe vera plants contain cell wall carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose and storage carbohydrates such as acetylated mannans. The aim of this study was to observe the antioxidant property of watermelon and aloe vera against cadmium effect on glycogen deposition in the heart using Periodic Acid Schiff stain (PAS). Thirty five Wistar rats were obtained and acclimatized for two weeks. They were divided into 7 groups, five rats each. Group 1 normal control received 3 mg/kg/bw of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) intraperitoneally. Group 2, received 3 mg/kg/bw of Cd (3CdSO4.8H2O) intraperitoneally. Group 3 (therapeutic control) received 100 mg/kg/bw of vitamin C and 300 mg/kg/bw of vitamin E orally once daily. Group 4 (therapeutic control and induced) received same as group3 with Cd induction intraperitoneally two days before sacrifice. Group 5, 6 and 7 treatment groups were induced with 3 mg/kg/bw of Cd intraperitoneally before treatment with 80 mg/kg/bw of watermelon, 80 mg/kg/bw of aloe vera and 40 mg/kg/bw of both extract orally and twice daily respectively. The experiment lasted for 4weeks. The result obtained showed normal glycogen deposition in group 1, reduced glycogen deposition in group 2, decreased glycogen deposition in group 5, 6 and 7 but better than animal in group 2, presence of glycogen deposition in groups 3, 4 even after Cd administration. The result from the study shows that cadmium is capable of greatly reducing glycogen deposition in the heart. Watermelon and aloe vera extracts show potency in ameliorating the effect of cadmium in induced heart as in the case of therapeutic drugs, vitamin C and Vitamin E.


Open Access Original Research Article

Histomorphological Study of Effects of Oral Administration of Cadmium Nitrate on Heart of Adult Wistar Rats

S. A. Adelakun, O. O. Oyewo, O. D. Omotoso, N. O. Amedu, U. P. Idoko

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/24353

Cadmium nitrate occurs as a colorless solid. It is soluble in dilute acids and ethanol, acetone, water, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate. This study examined the effects of Oral Administration of cadmium nitrate on histomorphology of the heart of adult wistar rats. Twenty (n=20) adult wistar rats of both sexes randomly divided into four groups (A-D) of five (n=5) rats each; Rats in group A which served as control were given 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water for 21 days. Rats in group B, C, and D (cadmium nitrate CdN group) were given 150 mg/kg/bw of CdN, 225 mg/kg/bw of CdN and 300 mg/kg/bw of CdN administered orally through an orogastric cannula into the stomach via the esophagus, once a day, for twenty one consecutive days. The heart of each rat was harvested and weighed before fixed in 10% formal saline for histological procedures. Results revealed normal histological architecture in control while the experimental rats showed inflammations, distortions, congestions, and degenerative changes in myocardium tissue. The heart weight significantly increased in treated group while compared with the control group. Observed effects may therefore cause cardiovascular disorder.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the effect of Watermelon and Aloe Vera on Cadmium Induced Heart Damage in Adult Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus)

O. D. Omotoso, S. A. Adelakun, H. B. Akpan, U. A. Yusuf, O. O. Adeleye, O. O. Adeyinka

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/24272

The aim of the study was to investigate the antioxidant property of watermelon and aloe vera against cadmium damaging effect on the heart and the packed cell volume of the blood. Thirty five Wistar rats were obtained and acclimatized for two weeks. They were randomly divided into 7 groups, five rats each. Animal in individual groups were induced intraperitoneally with 3.0 mg/kg of cadmium sulphate and were treated with aloe vera and water melon at 40 mg/kg, animals in control group received 3.0 mg/kg of PBS as shown in Table 1. The research lasted for 4 weeks. The enzymes analysis on antioxidant activity and packed cell volume was considered statistically significant at (p<0.05) based on Mean±SEM. The packed cell volume significantly increased for watermelon group 5 and aloe vera group 6 when compared to normal control group 1. Group 3, 6 and 7 were statistically significant when compared to the mean value of the normal control while group 4 and 5 were not statistically significant for Malondialdehyde (MDA), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx). None was statistically significant for Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Group 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 were statistically significant for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results from this experiment demonstrate the high degree of potency in aloe vera over watermelon in preventing oxidative damage due to cadmium interaction with the animal system. Watermelon only was not able to provide significant benefit against cadmium damaging activities. However, in combination with aloe vera, watermelon can be effective against cadmium activity and they are dose dependent, which justified the antioxidant properties of both plants extract to ameliorate cadmium toxicity in the heart tissue.


Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Approach to Hypertension Using Thiazide Diuretic is Accompanied with Physiological Micro Nutrients and Vitamins Depletion

Akinwumi Ogundajo, Modupe Asaolu, Sunday Adeoye

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/24461

Aims: This study tends to investigate the effect of thiazide diuretic as an antihypertensive agent on some physiological micro nutrients and vitamins.

Study Design: One factor quasi-experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. December, 2014-November, 2015.

Methodology: Selected micro nutrients such as Cu2+ (copper ion), Fe2+ (iron ion), Ca2+ (Calcium ion), Zn2+ (Zinc ion), Co (Cobalt ion), Mn2+ (Manganese), Se (Selenium ion), Mg+(Magnesium ion) and vitamins such as Vit C (Vitamin C), Vit E (Vitamin E), Vit A (Vitamin A) were analyzed in blood samples of normotensive, uncontrolled  hypertensive subjects and controlled hypertensive subjects under thiazide diuretic administration using standard methods.

Results: There were significant decreases (p=.0001) in all blood concentration of selected blood micro nutrients of uncontrolled and control hypertensive subjects under thiazide diuretic when compared with normotensive subjects with the exception of Fe2+ in both uncontrolled and controlled hypertensive subjects under thiazide diuretic which was found to be significantly increased when compared with normotensive subjects while similar picture was observed for Ca2+ but only in controlled hypertensive subjects in both male and female group (P=0.0001). Comparing blood vitamin profile of untreated hypertensive subjects and hypertensive subjects under thiazide diuretic therapy with normotensive showed significant decreases in blood vitamins in both condition irrespective of sex (P=.0001).

Conclusion: The above findings suggest that thiazide diuretic may further deplete the already depleted micronutrients and vitamins in hypertensive subjects. Also, iron and calcium rich diet or supplement may be moderately consumed due to its implication in the pathophysiology of hypertension and should be monitored when administering thiazide diuretic while consumption of micronutrients and vitamins rich diet or supplement may be encourage when administering thiazide diuretic antihypertensive agent to augment  for depleted micronutrients and vitamins. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Enthalpy, Factor of Cardiac Power and Precursor of Work Power from the Nodal Tissue

A. B. Kunyima, S. N. Lusamba, M. B. Kunyima, C. N. Kabele

Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CA/2016/26708

Background: The blood can be considered as a real fluid flowing in fixed vibrating myocardial canal. Its ejection during the left ventricular contraction is the phenomenon hereby studied. The left ventricle has been taken as a checking volume encompassing one part of aorta. The limit of this thermodynamic system is dotted and situated under endocardial tissue. The blood in this closed ventricle is considered in stationary state. A vent connects the left ventricle to the aorta and the system receives the work power from nodal tissue.

Aim and Objective: The study aims to dial differential enthalpy and to show that it can be used to quantify the cardiac power.

Methodology: The study has been performed on healthy persons, men and women, of Democratic Republic of Congo. The sample of 20.000 cases of healthy persons whose age varies between 13-73 years has been investigated. The blood pressure measurements and calculations are our methodology of work. The figures have been plotted by means of origin 8 program.

Results: In each cross section of life the parameter in title has been calculated and correlated at different ages. Also the cardiac power has been calculated at different cardiac frequencies. Interpretations of the results are commented.

Conclusion: A new concept of differential enthalpy is introduced in this paper to show that this original parameter has twofold roll. Firstly it can be used to calculate cardiac power and secondly it can help to evaluate the work power from Keith Flack node. This last assertion constitutes the content of our research on Keith Flack impetus assessment in heart acting.